Meet Karlis, an R&D expert at Stensborg.
We are a team of experts who take pride in our work, but we also have a passion for taking innovation forward.
This video with Karlis explores nanoimprint lithography (NIL); we question what NIL means to STEM development and future innovation and how this fits our vision as a company.
Watch our latest video to learn more here.
We are nanoimprinting experts!
From nanoimprinting tools, optics designs and volume production, the Stensborg team has been working on technological innovations throughout 2021 to help push the modern age forward.
Continuously working to grow the experience of tech-in-modern life, the team didn't let the global pandemic stop them. Read about Stensborg's achievements in nanotechnology, nanoimprint lithography, optics, AR, solar cells and more here.
We are finishing April off with a new team member joining the Stensborg team.
Ritika joins the fold as a Business Development Manager to help us grow the company and spread the word about our unique products, such as the HoloPrint® uniA6 DT - An innovative and affordable solution for small-scale nanoimprint lithography work. It provides the user with the ability to fast prototyping, test, and characterise property structure.
Ritika holds a PhD in Micro- and Nanotechnology from the Technical University of Denmark. She has also completed an M.S. in Electrical Engineering from Duke University in the USA and has received two patents for her work.
With extensive cleanroom experience and knowledge of the industry, we are confident she will be a great addition to the team.
The uniqueness of Stensborg's processes is recognised globally!
Recently, we presented two UK patents; today, we are proud to announce that we received a third, a patent for "Method of metallising optical elements comprising surface relief structures" - US11029647, this time in the USA.
The patented invention addresses issues occurring during the conventional methods for high-quality metallisation of optical elements comprising surface relief structures.
We congratulate the inventors - Jan Stensborg, Leif Yde, Lars Lindvold, Christian Elbek and Anders Albertsen.
Welcome to Gabriel Krawietz Delgado, our new Assistant Video Content Creator.
Gabriel has a Bachelor's Degree in Communications from Denmark’s Roskilde University and is currently studying Multimedia Design at KEA in Copenhagen.
Gabriel's previous field experience in video production will help Stensborg keep growing digital communications and provide a greater range of instructional video content for their customers.
The team look forward to working alongside Gabriel.
We participated in yet another great conference organised by European Photonics Industry Consortium!
Our CEO, Jan Stensborg, and 150 executive-level attendees from all over Europe attended the Annual General Meeting in Vilnius, Lithuania. Such an international audience enabled fruitful discussions, great networking opportunities and insightful presentations centred around the photonics industry.
The Prime Minister of Lithuania and the Mayor of Vilnius welcomed us to the conference with their inspiring opening speech, which set the stage for the whole meeting.
We thank the organisers and the attendees for creating an ideal environment for thought-provoking discussions and possible future collaborations.
We welcome Leonor Mariano to Stensborg, our new Student Assistant working in the Marketing department.
Leonor has a Bachelor's Degree in Marketing Management from Iscte University in Portugal and is currently pursuing her Master's Degree at the University of Southern Denmark in Brand Management and Marketing Communication.
With some previous experience in marketing assistant positions, Leonor will bring a new perspective to Stensborg's online presence.
Congratulations to Stensborg inventors for being granted another patent!
Leif Yde, Lars Lindvold and Jan Stensborg received another patent for "Method of, and apparatus for, production of surface relief structures", granted by the Intellectual Property Office in the United Kingdom.
The invention seeks to address the problems occurring during the conventional transfer of a surface relief structure to the substrate and resin. The traditional methods require complex, costly and precise control; otherwise, imperfections and errors can happen. Stensborg's inventors challenged this technical problem with their many years of Nanoimprint Lithography experience and state-of-the-art technology.
We are delighted to have such innovational thinking within the team. You can read more about Stensborg's team here.
At Stensborg, we explore the latest nanotechnology to develop our own innovative nanoimprint lithography equipment. The HoloPrint® uniA6 DT was no different, allowing for smart technology to be applied within various industries, affordably, in turn, revolutionising nanotech on a global scale.
We are so proud of the knowledge we have acquired within the field and the established long-lasting relationships we have built with partners and customers.
Take a look at some of the places our intelligent device (HoloPrint® uniA6) exists today, which is, in turn, driving greater innovations with industry experts every day.
Our most recent blog explores how nanotechnology is enabling rising applications of solar energy in society... how are we, Stensborg, leaving our mark on the modern world.
Read here to find out more.
Our optical engine received a patent!
Stensborg's CTO Leif Yde, former CSO Lars Lindvold and our CEO Jan Stensborg have all worked extremely hard to create their own unique design of an optical engine using LEDs as a light source.
The Intellectual Property Office in the United Kingdom has granted us a patent for an invention entitled "An optical engine for an imprinter", which is the most essential part of any nanoimprinting device. The imprinting light uses minimal energy and is thus more environmentally friendly.
We are celebrating this great innovation that came from Stensborg's labs!!
Learn more about Stensborg at GEM2022 in Sydney!
One of our distributors, Australian Vacuum Services, represents us at the Australian conference concerning gaseous electronics. Stop by their booth and get an introduction to our innovative products and services, including our affordable and portable device, the HoloPrint® uniA6 DT.
As experts in nanotechnology systems and vacuum equipment, Andrew and Laurens are happy to answer any of your questions.
We hope you enjoy the event!
Read more about this exciting partnership here.
In November, we introduced a co-authored scientific paper about the possibility of Stensborg's nanoimprinted structures improving the performance of organic solar cells.
Today, we are proud to say that that article was chosen as the front cover of the renowned Chemistry Europe association, which unites 16 chemical societies from 15 European countries.
The research was conducted as part of the RollFlex project, an EU funded scheme focusing on developing sustainable energy solutions, such as flexible solar cells and LEDs.
We are delighted that Stensborg's nanoimprinted structures might bring us closer to green energy and a sustainable future for all.
Currently, 5 million people are dying annually due to blood shortage, and our HoloPrint® uniA6 DT is helping to tackle that crisis...
We visited a PhD student Shahana Bishnoi at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), where she is researching artificial red blood cells by using Stensborg’s HoloPrint® device.
Shanana uses our Roll-to-Plate device as an embosser to fill the stamp wells with PEG formulation. She hopes to produce red blood cells with increased circulating times by utilising physical mimicry, as poor circulation was the reason for previous blood substitutes being rejected.
We applaud Shanana for tackling this critical challenge and are happy to see that our device enables such necessary medical research.
Another blog is out!
With January swiftly passing by, we are bringing you a new piece of information again. This time on the coloured solar cells and how they are advancing the sustainable energy world.
Access the blog article here to find out more.
Read our latest blog on how researchers and innovators use biomimicry to inspire solving complex human problems.
Do you know how the design of a lotus leaf or a butterfly wing is improving your day-to-day life? This writing explores how nature is a source of inspiration for STEM innovators.
Read here to learn more.
We hosted a Christmas dinner party for all our employees to get into the Christmas spirit!
Together with our Graspian ApS and SPIO Systems colleagues, we spent a lovely evening dining, talking, playing games, and unwrapping gifts.
It was a great occasion to get to know each other even better and have some fun and quality time together.
A marvellous evening and end to the year 2021!
Our newest blog post about a recent innovation made by Stensborg’s engineers to rebuild a new version of the commercial Epson Ecotank printer is published!
This innovation will provide researchers and students with a device for entry-level NIL work that possesses a better and more affordable deposition method.
You can read the full blog here.
Our CEO, Jan Stensborg, has given a presentation at a conference in the US!
He was talking about the European perspective on R2R NIL projects at the International Conference on Micro and Nano Devices Enabled by R2R Manufacturing hosted by Nanosystems Engineering Research Center (NASCENT).
We thank the organisers for a great event and are looking forward to next year.
On 17th November, we participated in the NNT 2021 conference.
We presented how we re-built the Epson Ecotank printer by developing seven easy-to-make 3D printed add-on items and a driver tailored for nanoimprinting requirements.
This innovation will provide researchers and students with an affordable and cost-effective device for entry-level NIL work - As always, we strived to create a tool that supports the nanoimprinting community and makes it more accessible for future innovations.
You can learn more about the tool here - https://bit.ly/30PLbt8.
One Engineer, Karlis Petersons and CEO, Jan Stensborg, have co-authored a scientific article and participated in research conducted as part of an EU funded project, RollFlex.
With many other talented researchers, they were investigating whether Stensborg’s nanoimprinted structures could enhance the efficiency of organic solar cells, which would lead to the production of a more sustainable energy solution.
Read the article here and learn about their findings - https://bit.ly/3oSiO5S.
We welcome Can Demir to the company as our newest Lab Assistant with a specialisation in Chemistry.
Can is currently pursuing a Master's Degree in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at DTU to advance his Bachelor's Degree within the same field. He brings vast experience in experimental research and expertise in soft materials, polymer science, and bio-inspired material engineering.
We are looking forward to mutually learning from this new collaboration with Can.
Welcome to Marcin!
Marcin is our newest Marketing Assistant; with a Bachelor’s Degree in International Sales and Marketing and loads of digital marketing experience, Marcin is the perfect addition to the team. He is currently advancing his knowledge by pursuing a Master’s Degree in Business Administration, and we are delighted to have such a bright-minded student join the marketing department. Look out for more video content coming soon.
Even Though females are still underrepresented in STEM fields, women have significantly impacted science throughout time.
Read our blog where we explore female representation in STEM, which is changing the world around us as a direct result of their work.
You can read the full blog here.
We finally visited our partners in Austria!
After Covid restrictions have lifted, we can finally offer on-site services again, starting with our premium research partner Profactor.
During our stay, we successfully upgraded Profactor's roll-to-plate (R2P) nanoimprinting (NIL) system with new inkjet and IR technology to enable new application developments at their lab facility.
Our CEO, Jan Stensborg, was interviewed by EPIC - European Photonics Industry Consortium.
He talked about the innovation processes and shared his expertise and experience working in the nanoimprint lithography field.
Jan also commented on what to do when someone copies your work and recommends it to the future generation of STEM innovators.
You can read the full article here.
We were delighted and honoured to welcome Carlos Lee, the Director of EPIC - European Photonics Industry Consortium, into our facilities.
We talked about our recent challenges and opportunities during Carlos' visit and the hurdles and possibilities in photonics. It was great to discuss how we, as a company, are contributing to improving the industry and pushing innovation forward.
Bringing you more data-driven insights...!!
We talk about why we value our student assistants and their importance within the Stensborg team. Our rising talent will be the next generation of STEM innovators; it is our job to nurture the expertise of tomorrow.
Read the blog here.
We are excited to introduce to you our new Sales Engineer, Asmae Dahrabou!
Asmae holds a PhD in Geomechanics and Geothermics and has finished two Masters Degrees in General Engineering and Reservoir Engineering and Petroleum Geosciences. With her vast international experience and sales background, she is an excellent addition to the Stensborg team.
Stensborg has expanded to Switzerland!
Our unique HoloPrint® uniA6 DT is on its way to a new client in Switzerland. We are looking forward to seeing the exciting and inspiring innovations this nanoimprinter will assist in this Swiss R&D lab.
We would like to congratulate our Austrian based partners, IMBA - Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, on developing the world's first self-organising cardioids. It is a truly revolutionary achievement for human congenital heart defect research. You can read more about their study and findings here.
We have produced another instructional video on how to use our HoloPrint® uniA6 DT. This time, we focus on how to mount the protective foil properly to reduce the number of bubbles created to ensure the foil's durability. Please contact us if you're interested in watching the video or have any questions about the HoloPrint® uniA6 DT.
Innovation is what defines Stensborg; these discoveries stretch across all areas of the team. One of our student lab workers, Kevin, has taken over a project to advance the Epson Inkjet printer. After a redesign, it can now be used to spread light-curing resins on our substrates, making the process much more cost-effective. We can also customise the shape and size of the resin area.
Read our newest blog about how virtual reality is changing STEM education here. VR technology has transformed many fields from online shopping and working to medical operations, but one area where popularity is increasing rapidly is STEM education. For that reason, we decided to summarise this exciting trend in our newest blog post.
As proud partners, Stensborg is pleased to share Heliac's recent news of a DKK100 million investment which drives a greener future for us all. You can read more about the company's achievements here.
We are happy to have participated in the NIL Industrial Day 2021 conference; Two days full of exciting and insightful talks took place with industry experts, researchers and skilled professionals sharing their findings and achievements within the nanoimprint lithography field. With over 450 participants, this online conference, with its enriching atmosphere, was a tremendous success.
Happy birthday to us - another year has passed, and Stensborg is now
23 years old!
We want to say thank you for being with us and supporting our innovation. We look forward to continuing to make an impact on the nanoImprinting world.
We want to show you around our smart facilities!
Have you ever wondered where nanoimprinting innovation happens? Then watch our video here and get a sneak peek of Stensborg's facilities.
Our CEO, Jan Stensborg, has attended the Polymer Replication on Nanoscale 2021 conference, where he met many inspiring and knowledgeable scientists, researchers and experts in the nano field. PRN 2021 was another event filled with insightful talks and discussions that provided great insight.
Watch our latest video here about how Stensborg and our innovative technology support students in universities worldwide.
Did you know that 1 in 10 of our machines is shipped to an institute in the educational sector? We are proud to be supporting the future generation of STEM innovators with our state-of-art technology.
Happy International Day of Light, everyone!
Today is another great opportunity to appreciate and acknowledge the importance of light in our day-to-day lives.
Light plays an integral part in many sectors: from science, culture, education to medicine, communications, and energy. It enables us to synthesise planted food, perform medical operations, and correct a person's vision. It allows our gadgets to connect to the internet, monitor the climate, and much more.
We created an instructional video after receiving some enquiries about how to mount the imprinting template when using the HoloPrint® uniA6 DT. If you require our support, don't hesitate to reach out to us, we are always happy to assist our clients in their journey to improve the world with nanoimprinting.
Did you know that Stensborg creates and manufactures its own chemistry? Have a read about why it is so important to create customised chemistry for the future of the nanoimprinting field here.
The EPIC online meeting on moulded optics was another very insightful event hosted by the EPIC - European Photonics Industry Consortium. The conference has enriched us with crucial insights into the future challenges and solutions in the photonics industry.
New month, new blog!
Learn more about how we became who we are, our history, exciting details of the innovations we are making in STEM and our plans for the future. Get to know Stensborg better by reading our latest article here.
Stensborg's first video, The Invention of the HoloPrint® uniA6 DT, is now live!
Since the HoloPrint® uniA6 DT is an industry-unique device, we want to give you a behind the scenes story of how the nanoimprinter came about and our biggest obstacles when inventing this smart machine. More here.
We have participated in the EPIC Photonics Industry Consortium this week, where we gained many insights into the upcoming trends in the photonics industry.
Our very first blog is live!
Read more about how 90-degree angles can kill your design here - This blog could have saved Steve Jobs a lot of time and money. From now on, you can also look forward to reading more interesting content; this is just the beginning of our journey to bring you more insight-driven articles.
We are happy to be attending another year of the SPIE Photonics West 2021 conference.
As every year, the event is filled with talks given by the experts and scientists dominating photonics. We have enjoyed the fruitful discussions those talks have sparked and are looking forward to more in the following days.
Another team member has joined us! We welcome Caroline Tynell Hansen, a promising female lab assistant. Since finishing her Bachelor's Degree, Caroline has developed a keen interest in Nanoscience and so decided to continue her studies to develop a deeper knowledge of nanomaterials and analysis techniques. Caroline is currently undertaking a Master's Degree in Nanoscience at the University of Copenhagen.
Welcome Caroline, we look forward to showing you around our newly refurbished HQ and hearing your ideas!
We are glad to introduce our new team member, Kevin Jensen. Kevin has a Bachelor's Degree in Mechanical Engineering and continues his Master's Degree in the same major at DTU - Technical University of Denmark. As a student lab assistant, Kevin will gain valuable insights into developing innovative solutions at Stensborg.
We are delighted to welcome another bright student to Stensborg, Martin Valentin Thomsen. Martin is currently taking a Master's Degree in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at DTU, where he also completed his Bachelor's Degree in Chemical Engineering and International Business. Martin is looking forward to diving feet first into the world of nanoimprinting.
Nahuel Victor Rizzi joined the Stensborg's team this month. Nahuel is currently enrolled at Danmarks Tekniske Universitet - DTU, studying a Master's Degree in Wind Energy. Nahuel possesses a relevant academic background and a vast amount of experience in Electromechanics. Nahuel will help our team with lab assistance in developing a deeper understanding of Nanoimprinting field.
Welcome on the board, Nahuel!
Casper Gramhald-Nørland is the newest addition to the Stensborg's team. He is currently studying at DTU for a Master's Degree in Innovation & Design and has decided to join us to gain more practical and on-hand experience. Casper is working together with our team of engineers on testing, designing, and the optimization of our products.
We are thrilled to welcome another bright and innovative mind - welcome Casper!
This year, the plan for the Christmas team-building activity was a bit different here at Stensborg. Instead of a typical "Julefrokost", we have decided to hold an ugly Christmas sweater competition! At the last moment, it had to be moved online, but that didn't stop us from having at least an online laugh! In the picture, you can see some of our employees in their Christmas outfits - a great way how to celebrate the end of the year.
We are delighted to announce that Stensborg's HoloPrint uniA6 DT gets to travel the world again. Last week we shipped out more machines to customers, in the UK and the USA. It is always a great honour to share our technology with foreign markets, and we could not wish for a better way to end 2020 than with more global expansion.
Jekaterina Mironova has joined Stensborg’s team as our new Business Administration assistant! Jekaterina, also called Katja, is originally from Latvia, but currently living and studying in Denmark at Roskilde University. At Stensborg, she is working as our CEO’s Jan Stensborg right hand, helping him to oversee and manage individual accounts and the company. We are happy to welcome her on board.
Stensborg is evolving, so we have launched a new website! Earlier this year, we acknowledged that our website deserved a new fresh look with up-to-date information about our products and services. Therefore, Stensborg's marketing team decided to take on the challenge of rebuilding the whole website from scratch. After a few months of intensive work, the time when we can present it to the world has finally come. Take a closer look, and let us know what you think.
We are excited to introduce Annemiek Chall as Stensborg's new Senior Optical Engineer. Annemiek is an experienced researcher and engineer who is fascinated by light and its possibilities. She will be working with optical designs for some exciting new client projects. Originally from Germany, Annemiek joins us as she is interested in working with nanoimprinting and the world of lithography.
Happy birthday to us! Today, exactly 22 years ago, Stensborg was established by our CEO Jan Stensborg. It has been an exciting journey full of successes and also some failures that led us to improvement and growth. Our only birthday wish is to have many more successful years ahead of us and to help advance the nanoimprinting world. We are looking forward to the new challenges and accomplishments that the incoming years will bring. You can read more about our history on the about us page.
SPIE Photonics West 2020 took place at the beginning of February and we were proud to be part of it. It was an exciting week full of interesting presentations and speeches. In the first two days, we attended the BiOS Expo, which was focused on biophotonics, biomedical optics, and imaging conference. In the latter half of the week, the Photonics West exhibition was on the program. During the whole conference, we met many bright minds and inspiring professionals and researchers. It was a great week, full of new insights and intelligence that will help us to move forward within nanoimprinting lithography.
Stensborg’s team is expanding by two enthusiastic students with a flair for digital marketing, Karolína and Kamila! They will be working on many exciting marketing projects that will bring Stensborg closer to you, our customers. Most easily you can come into contact with them and their work through our social media posts on either Facebook, LinkedIn, or Twitter.
Karolína is originally from the Czech Republic from a city called Liberec, but has been living in Denmark for a few years now so Danish culture feels very familiar to her. Currently, she is living in Copenhagen and just started studying a Master’s program in Business Administration and Leadership at Roskilde University and is very much looking forward to diving into the theory of organization and management. When Karolína is not studying nor working on our digital marketing strategy, she enjoys traveling, photography, and dancing.
Kamila was born and raised in Košice, Slovakia. She is a Bachelor student of Business and Communication at Roskilde University and thanks to living at the university’s campus she is able to take part in extracurricular activities. She is, for example, one of the organizers of RUC e-sport. In her spare time, Kamila enjoys photography, learning more about the latest tech gadgets, and is also drawn towards the beauty world.
Together, they make a great team and so you can expect many amazing novelties happening either on our social media channels or website in the future.
We are excited to welcome Christian Bjerrum-Niese to the Stensborg team. Christian will be tasked to drive new business for the company by developing and implementing strategic growth initiatives. Christian brings to our team a wealth of business development experience from Danish start-ups and global tech companies. Welcome Christian!
We had the opportunity to attend the 18th International Conference on Nanoimprint and Nanoprint Technologies, NNT 2019, in Boston Massachusetts. During our three day visit, we were able to take part in a unique nanoimprint ecosystem session and connect with many academics, industry, and national laboratories from all over the world. We dove into the emerging areas in imprinting technology such as augmented and virtual reality, energy generation and storage, intelligent nanoscale devices, and the life sciences. The many interesting lectures and debates that were arranged at NNT 2019 were one of the highlights of the conference. We cannot wait to participate in NNT 2020 next year!
Our very own Desktop Holoprinter traveled to Taiwan to the Touch Taiwan exhibition All Radiance 2019, where it was presented to the wide audience of the conference. We gained much insightful information and feedback that allows us to advance and perfect the Desktop Holoprinter even better, so we thank you for that and look forward to our next visit to Taiwan!
Stensborg was part of the Profactor booth at Nil Industrial day in Aachen (March 28-29). We are very happy that they were showcasing our new technology; the HoloPrint uniA6 DT.
Stensborg is proud to announce an exciting new consortium where we will be exploring how our imprint technology can be used to produce a cost efficient fabrication process for advanced nano-electrode arrays suitable for automatised drug-screening.
A detailed 36 month development project has been agreed between the consortium partners, with a budget of 2M€ which has been obtained with partial funding from The Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG).
For more information please contact Stensborg at firstname.lastname@example.org.
As the first partner to benefit from Stensborg’s new Optical Engine, Forster Verkehrs- und Werbetechnik GmbH recently installed our new LED-based Optical Engine with great success.
Wolfgang Hackl from Forsters Print technology business development says:
"We have successfully been using the HoloPrint system from Stensborg for some years now and felt the new LED-based Optical Engine would present more consistency in our hologram production compared with gas discharge based Optical Engines We are very pleased with our decision to install the new equipment from Stensborg. Hats off to these guys! It was delivered promptly and excel on all promised specifications”.
The LED-based Optical Engine is developed in-house at Stensborg and will now be an integral part of Stensborg’s future systems, including the new Desktop imprinter which can be used with passive cooling as well as active liquid cooling.
Forster has achieved a well-deserved reputation for the diversity of its innovative products. A business that had begun by manufacturing embossed signs in 1956, Forster has since grown into an international operator that combines superior know-how with the most stringent quality standards.
They offer fully developed and technically mature solutions in traffic engineering, shelving systems, noise barriers, advertising systems, signage, and industrial printing.
Contact: Wolfgang Hackl, Print technology business development. Forster Verkehrs- und Werbetechnik GmbH. Weyrer Straße 135
A-3340 Waidhofen/Ybbs Phone: +43 7442 501-275, www.forster.at
We are very happy to announce our new Stensborg LED Optical Engine upgrade for our Holoprint NIL systems.
By moving from plasma to LED technology, the new upgrade provides customer benefits in energy savings and system stability.
The new Optical Engine is now implemented in Holoprint systems from 100 to 420 mm width.
Our CEO, Jan Stensborg held a speech at the Reconnaissance holography conference held in Minsk, Belarus on Nov 16th, 2018. He will be speaking about new opportunities in desktop NIL.
New article by Print og Medier about our print technology and new metallization process. Imprint the hologram directly in the printing press – without the need for foil!
You can read the article here.
Presenting our incredible new product - the HoloPrint® uniA6 DT. A nano imprinter for small scale tests and trials.
High throughput nanoimprint lithography - HoloPrint®
Dr. Lars Linvold of Stensborg A/S was speaking at the International Conference "Nanotechnology and Innovation in the Baltic Sea Region" at the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) in Sønderborg, Denmark.
Karlis Petersons, Stensborg A/S- was speaking at NIL Industrial day 2018 March 08-09 in Vienna Determination of the photocuring rate of light-curable resins for use in R2R and R2P NIL applications.
We finally have a Facebook page! Go check it out https://www.facebook.com/holoprinters/
Stensborg attended the Holography Conference 2016 which took place in Warsaw, Poland from 29-30 November. It saw 132 delegates from 33 countries come together to discuss the latest innovations, developments, and trends in commercial holography, from security and authentication to design and display.
We are happy to announce that Allan Mertner joins Stensborg a/s as chairman of the board.
You can see the whole Stensborg's team here.
A grant has been granted from the Renewal Fund in connection with the sale of 6 HoloPrint® solutions.